Food 580 Food and Beverage Intelligent Manufacturing 4 days ago
Food production enterprises have diverse water sources for production and complex health problems.
In all kinds of food processing and processing, water is not only an important component in the processing of products, but also used in the cleaning and disinfection of processing equipment, facilities and tools.
For example, mineral water, carbonated beverages, fruit juices, vegetable juices, milk, beer, and wine, etc., are mostly composed of water.
Water plays an important role in the manufacturing process of canned food, tofu, etc., and is one of the main components of the product. The main ingredients of confectionery, cakes, breads and biscuits are not water, but water also has an important impact on the quality of the product during its production.
Therefore, to a certain extent, water sanitation in food factories is an important part of food hygiene, and the quality of food is closely related to the quality of food processing water.
Before discussing the safety control of production water in food enterprises, let us first understand what are the requirements for food processing water?
1. Drinking water must not contain pathogenic microorganisms;
2. Chemical substances in drinking water shall not endanger human health;
3. Radioactive materials in drinking water shall not endanger human health;
4, sensory traits are good; should be disinfected;
5. The water quality should meet the standard requirements.
(1) Bacterial indicators: no pathogenic bacteria should be included, and the total bacterial content should be low. The total number of bacteria should not exceed 100 in lml water, and the coliform bacteria should not be detected;
(2) Toxicological indicators: the content of various toxic components (such as fluoride, cyanide, arsenic, selenium, mercury, cadmium, lead, chromium, etc.) shall not exceed the specified indicators;
(3) Chemical index: It is required to have a suitable acidity and alkalinity, generally pH 6.5 to 8.5, and has a refreshing taste, which meets certain hardness requirements. At the same time, there are restrictions on the content of iron, manganese, zinc, copper and other ions;
(4) Appearance: It must be colorless and odorless, and it does not contain visible substances, that is, it does not contain suspended solids, surface floats, sediments, microorganisms and immature larvae.
Next, we will discuss the safety control of production water in food enterprises. The shortcomings are welcome.
National Food Safety Standards for Food Production (GB14881-2013) 5.1.1:
22.214.171.124 "It should be able to ensure that water quality, water pressure, water volume and other requirements meet production needs.
126.96.36.199 The water quality of food processing water should meet the requirements of GB 5749. Foods with special requirements for the quality of processing water should comply with the corresponding regulations. The water quality of food production water such as indirect cooling water and boiler water should meet the production needs.
188.8.131.52 Water for food processing and other water that is not in contact with food (such as indirect cooling water, sewage or wastewater) should be transported in completely separate pipelines to avoid cross-contamination. Each piping system should be clearly identified for differentiation.
184.108.40.206 Self-contained water sources and water supply facilities shall comply with relevant regulations. The sanitary safety products used in water supply facilities should also comply with relevant national regulations.
1 water supply requirements
There are generally three types: seawater, self-contained water wells, and urban water supply; the latter two are more commonly used. The water quality of urban water supply is well controlled, but the price is higher, and the self-contained water wells are relatively cheap, but the water quality should be strengthened.
As far as the packaging drinking water industry is concerned, pure water and mineral water use urban pipe network, some are surface water or groundwater; natural water, (mountain) spring water, etc. all come from surface water or groundwater, and the mineral water comes from groundwater or self-flux. spring.
According to the actual situation in the industry, in GB19398-2014, it is stipulated that:
“The surface water or groundwater from non-public water supply system shall be used as the source water for production. The water quality shall comply with the sanitary requirements of GB5749 for drinking water sources; after the source water is treated, the water quality of food processing water shall comply with the provisions of GB5749”; The surface water or groundwater from non-public water supply systems shall be used as source water for production, and its water quality shall comply with GB 3838 or GB/T 14848.
2 storage facility requirements
Production water is generally stored through water storage tanks or water storage tanks, but the storage tanks should be strengthened. It is not suitable to use wooden covers and iron chains to seal them. (The seals are not easy to enter impurities); the water storage facilities should be cleaned and disinfected regularly. It can be put into use after passing the water quality inspection, and records of cleaning, disinfection and water quality inspection should be retained.
Its disinfection procedure is:
Due to the high cost of the water tower, it is also necessary to clean and disinfect regularly. For the general enterprise, a set of secondary water supply equipment can be considered. That is, in the same water supply system, multiple common pumps can be installed. When the water supply is relatively large, multiple pumps can be fully opened; when the water supply is small, only one or two units can be opened. This kind of random installation design not only ensures the water supply demand, but also saves the water supply cost.
3 pipe design
Non-potable water can be used as boiler, fire protection and greening water for the factory, but the water supply lines for drinking water, non-potable water and sewage must be strictly separated, not collapsible with each other, and marked with obvious colors. The company shall formulate a detailed water supply network map. The water supply number shall be clearly indicated on the network map to clearly indicate the layout and direction of the water supply pipeline to facilitate the management and maintenance of the production water supply system.
The plastic soft water pipe used in the workshop is made of safe and non-toxic materials. It can not be used on the ground. After use, it is placed on a special rack. The anti-siphoning device is installed in the filtering device. It is located in the main water supply pipe of the workshop, which can effectively prevent the water from flowing backward. The distance between the water pipes in the workshop and the water surface is twice the diameter of the water pipe. The soft water pipe is not allowed to be directly inserted into the water tank.
4 production process water management
The water used for the ingredients should be pure water. Another potential factor for water pollution in the food environment is water softening and deionization equipment. When the water has odor, it should first be considered whether it is caused. In this case, the coliform monitoring is negative. However, the total number of colonies is particularly high, and the softened water becomes cloudy or even black due to the contamination of a large number of bacteria; the treatment method is to frequently reflow the resin layer and replace it regularly.
Ice and steam
The water used for the production of ice and steam must comply with the National Standard for Drinking Water.
The materials of the ice making equipment are not rusted and non-toxic, and the equipment for icing is clean and hygienic.
The piping for conveying steam shall be of non-rusting material and shall be hygienic and clean, and the piping shall be kept in good condition, strong and durable, and shall not leak steam to prevent harm to personnel safety and product quality. Use steam heating, not directly contact with food raw materials, you can use a sandwich pot to avoid too many cumbersome requirements. Steam is directly in contact with food, using filtered steam or clean steam, depending on process requirements and product quality.
Cleaning and disinfecting water
The ideal water supply for raw material flushing is microbiological, neutral pH and low mineral content, including hot water (minimum 82 ° C or higher) and cold water, with high pressure requirements. However, different requirements are different depending on the conditions of use. In order to achieve the disinfection and sterilization effect, the effective chlorine concentration of the circulating water used for raw material flushing is generally 20~25ppm, the effective chlorine concentration of the sterilization cooling water is generally 3~5ppm; the residual chlorine concentration of the sterilization cooling discharge water is generally 0.5~1.0ppm; In the production process of fruit juice, etc., ozone water can also be used for soaking and rinsing of pipelines, production equipment and containers.
5 sewage discharge
Before the discharge of sewage, relevant treatment should be carried out in accordance with relevant national standards (GB8978-1996 Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard, etc.), and the sewage treatment tank should be away from the production workshop.
There should be a metal mesh cover for the drainage of the workshop and the outside world to prevent mosquitoes and insects. The outlets of the floor drain and the drainage ditch should use P, U, S type water seals with traps to prevent odor; and the sewage flow direction is cleaned by high The area is low to the clean area.
The water in the front of the sewage treatment of food enterprises is not whitish. In the final sedimentation tank, the water is somewhat whitish. The effluent detection is relatively low in ammonia nitrogen and COD. The drugs used are polyacrylamide, polyaluminium chloride, and light calcium powder and hydrogen. Sodium oxide regulates the pH.
Expert Q & A:
Whether the influent water quality fluctuates or the composition changes too much. If there are more white sugars in the inside, it will be whitening. If there is too much organic matter, it is recommended to change the process. Flocculation is only a physical chemical reaction. Decomposable organic matter can not be processed.
6 related monitoring requirements
During the production period, water samples should be collected from the production site for microbiological, turbidity, smell and taste, visible to the naked eye, pH and other items.
The effective chlorine in the circulating water of the raw material cleaning process and the effective chlorine in the sterilizing cooling water are measured once every hour, and the sterilization cooling water is tested once per pot.
The processing water shall be sent to the qualified inspection department at least once a year, and the whole project shall be inspected according to the standard (mineral source water shall comply with GB8537, and other source water shall comply with GB 5749).