The National Museum of Brazil in the fire: these treasures and two hundred years of effort are destroyed

The National Museum of Brazil in the fire: these treasures and two hundred years of effort are destroyed
2018-09-03 14:35 澎湃News 0Participation
Brazilian President Temer said in a statement today: "The efforts, investigations and knowledge of two hundred years have been ruined, which is a sad day for all Brazilians."

On the evening of September 2, local time, Rio de Janeiro, the 200-year-old National Museum of Brazil fell into flames, and 20 million collections were threatened, including Egyptian artifacts and the oldest human fossils in Brazil.

According to previous reports from the Associated Press and the Guardian, a fire broke out in the National Museum in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on the evening of the 2nd local time. At present, the fire is fierce and the local fire brigade is carrying out fire fighting operations on the spot. The cause of fire, casualties and property damage have not been announced yet. The deputy director of the Brazilian Museum said that the museum has suffered from a shortage of funds for a long time and has never received sufficient support.



National Museum of Brazil in the fire

It is said that the fire almost spread all the places in the building of the National Museum of Brazil. When the "澎湃新闻" was published, the fire was still spreading and there was no sign of complete suppression.

Joan Carlos Naira, the current curator of the museum, said that this loss will never be recovered.

The fire occurred several hours after the end of the visit and no casualties or property damage have been reported. Brazilian President Temer issued a statement saying: "The efforts, investigations and knowledge of the two hundred years have been ruined, which is a sad day for all Brazilians."

Foreign media reported that Sergeant Moises Torres, the local firefighting headquarters, said that after receiving the alarm, the firefighters were dispatched to the fire site at 7:30 on the night of the local time to launch a full-scale rescue. According to the Guardian’s report on the G1 website, the fire broke out on the same day and there were no casualties. According to NBC News, the museum has infrastructure problems in recent years. There is no official statement on the cause of the fire, casualties or loss of the collection.



National Museum of Brazil

The National Museum of Brazil is not far from the center of Brazil. It was founded by King Joao VI of Portugal and 2018 is the 200th anniversary of the museum. The National Museum of Brazil dates back to 1818 and was founded by Joao VI. It currently houses 20 million pieces, many of which are invaluable, and even the world’s largest meteorite – the Wollaston crater meteorite and ancient Egyptian artifacts. The earliest human fossils in Brazil.



Interior of the National Museum of Brazil



Brazil's first human fossil

Collection of cultural relics

The National Museum of Brazil exhibits animals, insects, tableware for indigenous people, fossils of dinosaurs, tiger bones like sabers, Egyptian mummies, fish specimens, beautiful pottery before the Columbus era, archaeological artifacts of South America, fossils, fossils, etc. There are also exhibitions showing the customs of all ethnic groups in Brazil.



Bendegó meteorite

Among them, the National Museum's archaeological collection includes more than 100,000 items, covering important cultural relics from different cultures of the civilizations of the Americas, Europe, Africa and the Middle East since the Paleolithic Age. The pavilion is divided into four main sections: Ancient Egypt, Mediterranean Culture, Pre-Colombian Archaeology and Brazilian Archaeology, and the final Brazilian part is the core part of the pavilion. Since 1867, systematically and comprehensively combed the Brazilian Kabu The history of Larin and the protection of the most important material records related to Brazilian archaeology.



Shakespeare and mummies of Sha-amun-en-su, 750 BC



Egyptian Mummy ("Princess Kherima"), 1st to 3rd century AD

The ancient Egyptian collection of more than 700 items is the largest in Latin America and the oldest archaeological museum in the Americas. Most of the items were brought to the museum in 1826 by the then merchant Nicolau Fiengo from a collection of Egyptian artifacts. These artifacts belonged to the famous Italian explorer Giovanni Battista Belzoni, who was responsible for excavating Theban Necropolis (modern) Luxor and the Karnak Temple.



Stone monument of Raia, 1300 - 1200 BC



Hori's sarcophagus, 1049-1026 BC



Amon's bronze statue

The Mediterranean Culture section houses a collection of approximately 750 collections, mainly including artifacts from Greece, Rome, Etruscan and Italiot. Most of the previous works belonged to the collection of the Greek and Roman emperor Teresa Cristina, who was interested in archaeology since she was a child. The Queen came to Rio de Janeiro in 1843. After she married Emperor Pedro II, she brought in artifacts discovered during the excavation of Herculaneum and Pompeii.



Statue of Cora, Greek civilization, 5th century BC



Temple murals, 1st century BC



Alabaster sculpture, Hellenistic period

The former Colombian archaeological section houses approximately 1,800 artifacts and Andean mummies produced by indigenous peoples of the pre-Columbian era. Throughout the 19th century, the series emerged from the collection of the Brazilian royal family, some of which came from the private collection of Emperor Pedro II, which was later expanded through acquisitions, donations, exchanges and excavations. At the end of the 19th century, the collection was one of the largest collections of archaeology in South America, and it already had considerable prestige.



Human Ceramic Statue (Vari Culture, Peru), AD 500-1200



Bird pattern textiles (Peruvian Qiankai culture), AD 1200-1400

The archaeological part of Brazil has collected a large amount of artifacts. These artifacts were created by a culture that flourished on Brazilian territory during the pre-colonial period, with more than 90,000 items. These cultural relics from various regions of Brazil also constitute a cultural relics schedule of more than 10,000 years. Since the beginning of the 19th century, these artifacts have gradually gathered. In 1867, people began to systematically collect and expand through mining, acquisitions and donations. At the same time, it is also used as a base for research projects by academics, the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and other institutions.



Anthropomorphic funeral Mar (Marajoara culture), AD 400-1400



Ceramic ware ("Caryre" vase), Santarem culture, AD 1000-1400

Historical evolution

The National Museum of Brazil was founded in 1818 by the Portuguese King Joao VI (1769-1826) and was named "Royal Museum". The original intention was to promote scientific research in Brazil. Before that, it was a huge wild settlement, almost without Scientific development. At the beginning, the museum collected a large number of animal and plant samples, especially the samples of birds, so it was called "the house of birds."

After that, with the son of Joao VI and the first king of Brazil, Pedro I (1798-1834), married to Princess León Podia of Austria, the museum began to attract the greatest natural history of Europe in the 19th century. Family. Other European researchers who explored the country, such as Augustine St. Hilaire (1799-1853), also contributed to the collection.



National Museum of Brazil, 1870

At the end of the 19th century, due to the personal preferences of King Pedro II of Brazil, the museum began to enter new fields, including anthropology, paleontology and archaeology. Pedro II itself is also an enthusiastic supporter of amateur scientists and all branches of science. He also collects ancient Egyptian art and plant fossils. Due to the efforts of Pedro II, the National Museum began to modernize and become a South American nature. The most important museum of history and human science.



National Museum of Brazil in Rio de Janeiro

When the king was deposed in the military coup of 1889, he was still a very popular figure, so the Republican Party tried to erase the symbol of the empire. One of these symbols, the palace of St. Christopher, the king's official residence in Quinta da Boavista, became vacant; thus in 1892, the National Museum and all its collections, valuables and researchers were transferred. Go to this palace and stay there until today.

In 2018, the National Museum of Brazil held an event to commemorate its 200th anniversary.

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